Manual of cognitive coaching … (2014)
Michael Pichat (university psy. http://www.chrysippe.org) – Picture: Macau 2008 –
In 2002, D. Kahnemann won the Nobel Prize in Economics for his perspective theory, the basis of behavioral finance and the importance of cognitive biases in the analysis and decision-making processes (Stock Exchange, etc.).
Cognitive biases are « thought routines » that allow for reflection with minimal effort, as well as simplified decision-making rules and socially shared and validated patterns of reasoning.
Cognitivo-Behabior Coaching (CBC) is an unlearning of cognitive biases which cause dysfunctions and is a re-learning. To raise awareness that dysfunctional thoughts are the source of counterproductive / inappropriate emotions and behaviors.
The thought is first (except urgency or stress), the emotions and behaviors are secondary. But good revealers of thoughts.
Foundations of Stoicism (III ° BC), with Zenon (Greece) or Seneca and Epitecte (Rome):
what troubles men is not things, but the representation made.
- Production of solutions (the WHAT) and not a therapy (the WHY)
- Anchoring in the « Here and Now » and not a fixation of the past
- Production of an operational action plan with impacting objectives
- Work of limiting beliefs (schemas), cognitive distortions and automatic thoughts
- Investigation of the representation of the real: identification of the « misunderstanding » (fundamental error). « Arriving as usual 15 minutes late for work, and reprimanded by his n + 1, an employee explains the evening to his spouse that his n + 1 has disrespected him. »
- Objective: causal reassignment (essential awareness). Being an .. :
• external cause: independent of him, of his responsibility (« my boss can not frame me, I was not lucky, it’s stronger than me, ..)
• internal cause: responsibility and therefore corrective action
and cognitive flexibilisation (relativism). The passage of rigid thoughts (I must, I have to, I should, ..) to consensus preferences (« I prefer that … but that will not necessarily be the case … and not so dramatic »)
3. The coachee actor of his own change: in the decision of subjects, and the identification of beliefs
4. An anchorage in the « here and now« : more than a long search for causes, it is a search for solutions to a precise and current situation. Action more than understanding is the primary source of change.
Automatic dysfunctional thoughts from unrealistic beliefs (limiting) and reasoning bias (cognitive distortions)
1. Believes on Self, on Others and on the World (SOW). Attention to contamination by the environment (we do not deny social influence, but we oppose the disempowerment or victimization)
Few limitating Believes:
I have to be the object of a love; the life is terrible, I must be protected; when there is danger, it is normal that I anguish; I must prove to myself that I am competent; I must have a high degree of certainty (facing the future); my problems come from outside
–> Enneagram: a good solution of personal development
- The requirement: of oneself, of others or of the world -> preference (accept the possibility). Self-injection (it is imperative that I reach this goal), approval and esteem (it is imperative to be approved by my n + 1). -> ruminations, focus, thoughts auto or hetero-degrading.
- The catastrophization: the realization of a dreaded event would be dramatic (nothing good or favorable could emerge from a fear situation). Worst ! this can increase the likelihood that the dreaded event will occur
- Low tolerance for frustration (it’s abnormal, unfair, unbearable!). To think that we don’t have the capacity to face, to have difficulties to accept efforts, I want all right away, self-victimization (I have little or no capacity to control, to act)
- The overall evaluation of depreciative SOW: refusal of feasibility and negativity of SOW (demonization)
2. Cognitive distortions: biased mode of information processing
Wrong (or inappropriate) reading of the « real » causes emotional reactions and unwanted behaviors.
- disqualification of the positive (denial, transforming into neutral or negative): « my teacher gives me good grades to encourage me »
- Maximization of the negative (this meeting is the worst that I have been ..)
- Selective abstraction (retain only negative-valence aspects)
- Dichotomization (binary and extreme reasoning: white or black, for or against). rigid and simplified assessment of events.
- Over-generalization (issuing a general rule from a situation)
- Arbitrary interference: negative and unsubstantiated conclusion of a situation in the absence of evidence or even before seeking it
- Personalization: overestimates the link between a problem and one’s own person
3. Automatic thoughts (AT): preconscious thoughts that coexist with conscious thoughts.
Pop-up, they are short, fast. They are ready-made conclusions. (I’m not going to understand this book, it’s dramatic, how dare it?, It ensures!)
Faced with a given situation, ATs are subjective resonances. ATs are difficult to raise (stealthy), in the opposite of the emotional reactions they generate.
Emotion is the best way to access to cognition
ATs can be recurrent and situational (not after-the-fact interpretations). An AT is an AFFIRMATION on SOW (Self, Other, World)
Model of the 7 cognitive matrix: standardized and validated at the psychometric level
Mix of positive psy. (amplify the skills) and CBA (transform the bias). The matrix helps to understand the modes of operation and reasoning. The classic CBA focuses on cognitive elements with an affective or subjective dimension. The matrix focuses on the effectiveness underlying action in (professional) situations.
- Effectiveness: knowing how to analyze, evaluate and make decisions
- Interaction with others: To know how to put in place a helping subjective relationship, situational
- Well-being: Knowing how to produce changes and adjustments